Cesky Krumlov Monuments

Český Krumlov State Castle

Český Krumlov State Castle foto

The State Castle of Český Krumlov, with its architectural standard, cultural tradition, and expanse, ranks among the most important historic sights in the central European region. Building development from the 14th to 19th centuries is well-preserved in the original groundplan layout, material structure, interior installation and architectural detail. State Castle Český Krumlov, overview from the Vltava River, foto: Andreas Buchner Created with the financial support of the Czech Minister of Culture and the firm Ipix. A worthy assessment of the area by both domestic and foreign experts resulted in the acquisition of historic monument preservation status. In 1963, the town was declared a Municipal Preserve, in 1989 the castle became a National Monument, and in 1992 the entire complex was included onto the list of UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Monuments.

The Administration of Český Krumlov Castle as a functionary of the Heritage Authority in České Budějovice attends to the operation of the structures, especially castle tours, maintenance, construction, and restoration work, and also participates in the arrangement of Cultural and Social Activities at Český Krumlov Castle.

The tall rock cliffs jutting out over the Vltava river was populated long before the oldest parts of today\'s castle and church were founded. The first settlement of the castle promontory dates back to the Bronze Age.

The original Gothic castle was founded by the Lords of Krumlov some time before 1250. They represented a branch of the powerful family of the Witigonen with the five-petalled rose in their coat-of-arms. When the Lords of Krumlov died out in 1302, their relatives the Rosenbergs inherited the castle. The Rosenbergs family had their seat there up till 1602. Their name as well as the three centuries of their rule is connected with the greatest era of flourish of the town and castle. In the second half of the 16th century the castle acquired the form of a mighty and splendid Renaissance residence. At that time the rulers of the Rosenberg dominion represented eminent personalities among Bohemian aristocracy, educated humanists, patrons of the culture and arts, and prominent politicians all filling the highest posts within Bohemian Kingdom.

In 1602, the Emperor Rudolf II. von Habsbursg bought the Krumlov dominion. Afterwards, the Emperor Ferdinand II. von Habsbursg donated the royal demesne to the Prince Johann Ulrich von Eggenberg who was the representative of an Austrian princely dynasty. It was not until their third generation that, in the 1680\'s, thanks to Johann Christian I. von Eggenberg, more intensive development of farming, building activities and arts was evident and the Český Krumlov Castle surmounted the period of provincial backwardness and stagnation in economy and arts resulting from the Thirty Years\' War. Johann Christian I. von Eggenberg converted Český Krumlov into an impressive Baroque seat.

As the Eggenbergs died out without successors in 1719, the new dynasty - the princely lineage of the Schwarzenbergs - inherited Krumlov. As early as in their second generation Joseph Adam zu Schwarzenberg showed his creative personality. A deft and enterprising businessman as well as a passionate art lover, he played an important role in the far-reaching reconstructions of the castle. Inclination towards the culture of the imperial residence in Vienna contributed to the enrichment of building innovations as well as of social life at the castle with the cultural impetus of European importance. Towards the end of the 18th century, and especially in the 19th century, the protracted stagnation of art and economy became evident, and after the middle19th century the Český Krumlov Castle lost its role as the main residence of the Krumlov-Hluboká Schwarzenberg branch and was not regularly inhabited even in the 20th century.

In 1947, the Schwarzenberg property, including Český Krumlov, was transferred to the Czech provincial properties and after the abolition of the provincial system it became the property of the Czechoslovak State in 1950.

 

Chapel on the Mountain of the Cross in Český Krumlov

Chapel on the Mountain of the Cross in Český Krumlov foto

This eight-nave chapel of Our Lady Dolorous and the Holy Cross built in 1710 is vaulted by an eight-part arch and covered with a tent-like roof topped with a lantern and a double cross. The chapel has been taken care of by the parish priest from Český Krumlov who, since 1991, has been annually holding a pilgrimage celebration of the St. Cross Rising (September 14th ). Apart from that event, the chapel is not opened to the public.

 

St. Vitus Church in Český Krumlov

St. Vitus Church in Český Krumlov foto

Kostel sv. Víta je gotická trojlodní stavba pocházející z období 1407 - 1439. Byl ovšem vystavěn na základech starší stavby z roku 1309. V 17. a 18. století byl kostel rozšiřován a upravován. Gotický vstupní portál pochází z roku 1410.
The height of the side colonnades approximates that of the main hall, a feature which classifies the St. Vitus church as a church of the hall type. The east to west length of the church is 44 meters, ie. 125 feet. It is about 20 m wide and 20 m high.

 

Synagogue in Český Krumlov

Synagogue in Český Krumlov foto použito z

Built in Nouveau-Romanesque style in 1909 by the local Jewish community, the Cesky Krumlov Synagogue features an eight-sided tower with Torah-shaped windows.
In 1945 it was used as an non-denominational Christian church for the American soldiers. A symbol of the U.S. Army preserved on a wall of the prayer hall serves as a reminder of this. From 1945 - 1968 the synagogue was used by the Czechoslovakian Hussite Church. The building is currently not used.